BIRDS OF NEW ENGLAND AND EASTERN NEW YORK - HOFFMANN

Previous Page - Table of Contents - Next Page

VI

HOW TO USE THE KEYS

The following keys include all the common land-birds of New England and eastern New York, except the hawks, the owls, the Mourning Dove, and the game-birds. No one should, however, expect, by the use of these keys, to name with certainty every small bird seen for a few moments at long range or in thick foliage. If a bird is to be identified, it must have been observed clearly enough and long enough for a fairly good description of it to be set down. No one can hope at first to carry an accurate mental picture of even the brightest bird. A note-book should, therefore, be always at hand in the field, and when an unfamiliar or doubtful bird is seen, the size, colors, habits, and habitat should be set down. Note-books arranged for such use can be procured (see Books of Reference).

To estimate the size, compare the bird with an English Sparrow, which is about 6.33 inches long. The Song Sparrow is about as long as an English Sparrow; the Bluebird, a little longer. The Robin, about ten inches long, will serve as a standard of comparison for the larger song-birds.

Birds are classified in the keys, according to color, under the following heads:

1. Brown or Brownish (including reddish-brown).

2. Gray or Grayish (including greenish-gray).

I have excluded from both of the above classes any birds which show any clear, bright yellow, such as the female Maryland Yellow-throat, or marked bluish-gray, such as the Nuthatches, but have included birds that have a more or less faint yellowish wash on the flanks, as the Phoebe in fall, and some of the Vireos.

3. Yellow or Yellowish without Black. (No large or prominent area of black.)

4. Yellow or Orange with Black.

This class includes chestnut and black. The black appears either in streaks, as in the Prairie Warbler, or in patches, as in the Goldfinch.

5. Black and White.

The black and white should form a marked contrast, either in streaks or bars, as in the Black and White Warbler and the Downy Woodpecker, or in large distinct areas, as in the Kingbird.

6. Black or Blackish.

This class includes purplish-black, as in the Crow Blackbird and the Purple Martin.

7. Red, Scarlet, or Rose.

This class includes all birds that have any such tint at all prominent.

8. Blue or Bluish-gray (excluding purplish-black).

A number of birds have been put into more than one class, to guard against oversight, on the part of the observer, of some bit of color. Plain-colored females and young, and bright-colored males of the same species have, of course, been put into separate lists. For the summer months there is a key to the birds seen constantly on the wing, such as the Swallows and the Swift, without reference to their color.

One should also notice carefully any conspicuous patterns of coloration, any stripes, streaks, or contrasts of color, and where they are situated. Many keys are based chiefly on such marks, and they are often necessary for final identification. But some of them are often either overlooked by beginners, or not well displayed by the bird. More stress has been laid in these keys on a combination of characteristics than on any one set, nor need the failure to note any one mark block the student's way entirely.

After the size, general color, and conspicuous marks have been noted, one should observe any tricks of attitude or gait, such as hopping, walking, tilting the tail, bobbing the head, raising crest-feathers, etc. The bird's feeding habits are also important; one should note whether it scratches for seeds, flies out into the air after insects, or gleans them from the trunk or twigs of trees.

Lastly, one should notice the kind of country in which the bird is seen, whether marsh, meadow, orchard, thicket, or forest. The term plantation is used occasionally in this Guide to designate ground which has been planted with trees and bushes, as on large estates. It is important, in noting the locality where a bird is seen, to look about and see what kind of ground is found near by; a marsh a few rods away will explain the presence of a Red-winged Blackbird in a roadside tree. In times of heavy migration, it is true, a bird may appear almost anywhere, and Swamp Sparrows will turn up in backyards; but, as a rule, the nature of a bird's food forces it, even in migration, to show preference for certain haunts. When a beginner grasps the fact that he will never see a House Wren clinging to a bulrush, or a Marsh Wren in an apple orchard, he may do much in the way of eliminating improbable birds. Another important and much neglected means of assistance in identification is afforded by taking into account the time of year : certain birds are never here in January (exceptions, of course, occur, but may be ignored by the beginner); others are found only in winter. The keys have therefore been arranged so that each season has its own key, and reference should be made only to that; it will sometimes happen, however, that a bird will appear late in one month, though it regularly comes early in the next, and is provided for in the following key.

Under the seasonal heading, there are subdivisions according to color, as already described, and in them the birds are arranged in two groups, in the order of their size : Group A contains birds larger than an English Sparrow; Group B those smaller than an English Sparrow. As a further help in identifying the larger song-birds, the place in the list where a Robin would come is indicated. If the student be in doubt whether a bird be larger or smaller than an English Sparrow, let him study the last birds in Group A, and the first in Group B. If the bird be noticeably small, let him begin the search at the bottom of Group B. The divisions A' and B' are to be used only in southern Connecticut and in the lower Hudson Valley ; the divisions A" and B" only in the northern portions of New York and New England. An asterisk beside the figures which give the size of a bird, indicates that the bird does not occur every year; two asterisks mean that it is very irregular, and more often absent than present.

The figures in the keys indicate in inches and decimals the length of the bird ; the keys include, besides, a brief statement of the kind of country in which the bird is generally found, and brief clues for its identification, some striking field-mark, or constant trick of action. If the bird has been carefully watched under favorable conditions, the search in the key will soon narrow down to a small number of species. If there is still doubt, the descriptions of these species and the accounts of their habits given in the body of the book should be carefully read, the evidence weighed, and a final choice, if possible, be made. A common fault of beginners in identifying from printed descriptions is to ignore some perfectly obvious and insuperable objection. I have known the skin of a Brown Thrush labeled as a Cuckoo, in spite of its spotted breast. Mr. Chapman tells me that the Louisiana Water-thrush has been identified as the Olivebacked Thrush : one is 6.28 inches long, the other 7.17; the extra inch must tell, even in the field.

But birds are often not seen to advantage; it is hoped that in such cases students of this book will learn to be content with the belief that the puzzling bird was probably one of two or three, and wait for another opportunity to settle the matter. No method is more harmful to a real advance in knowledge than the anxiety to get some name or other for every bird seen. The best field ornithologists of my acquaintance are most distinguished by their reluctance to give a decision on insufficient evidence. Yet one can be too timid, and a habit of doubting one's own powers of observation leads to discouragement. If one has a description noted on the spot, it is good mental training to come to some definite decision, to say that the weight of evidence is strongly in favor of this or that species. Certainty will come in time, with widening acquaintance. The beginner must realize, too, that his powers of observation are probably not yet fully developed; his untrained eye is confused by a flying or moving bird, and gets only a glimpse of color, where a skilled observer sees steadily, and discovers the distinctive fieldmark.



KEYS

KEYS

Note. — The following signs and abbreviations are used in the keys and in the text:

♂ = male.

♀ = female.

Ad. = adult.

Im. = immature.

* = irregular.

** = very irregular.


Groups A (birds larger than an English Sparrow) and B (birds smaller than an English Sparrow) may be used throughout New England and eastern New York; groups A' and B' only in southern Connecticut and the lower Hudson Valley; groups A" and B" only in the northern portions of New York and New England. (See How to Use The Keys)

No provision has been made in the keys for birds in immature plumage; in the autumn and winter in most cases where the female (♀) is specified, young males may be included in the same category.

The occasional dates of arrival or departure given in the keys are, of course, only approximate, and will vary according to the season and to latitude. One may also expect a variation of about ten per cent. each way in the lengths of birds given in the keys and text.

KEY FOR WINTER

Brown or Brownish.
A.

12.00 in. Flies to or from trees; rump white... Flicker.
10.75 in. Only where there is little snow; feeds in grass; shows white tailfeathers in flight... Meadowlark.
10.00 in. Head black; breast bay...Robin.
7.75 in. On or near the beach; throat yellow... Shore Lark.
7.19 in. In flocks in trees; plump, sleek; eats fruit... Cedar-bird.

A'.

8.25 in. (As far north as Central Park, N. Y.) Crest, wings, and tail tinged with reddish... ♀ Cardinal.
7.17 in. Low in thickets; tail reddish-brown; breast white, spotted... Hermit Thrush.
6.74 in. Scratches on ground; tail brown; throat white... White-throated Sparrow.

[6.33 in. Size of English Sparrow.]

B.

6.36 in. In small flocks on ground; wing-bars white; breast unstreaked, with small dusky spot in centre... Tree Sparrow.
6.30 in. Skulks in marshes or brush heaps; breast streaked, with dark blotch in centre... Song Sparrow.
6.27 in. Brownish-gray; in flocks with slate-gray males; outer tail-feathers white... ♀ Junco.
6.25 in. Only in beach grass...Ipswich Sparrow.
5.66 in. Clings close to tree-trunks... Brown Creeper.
5.65 in. In small flocks; common near sea-shore or in bayberry patches; rump yellow... Myrtle Warbler.
5.32 in.** Grayish-brown; feeds in birches or in weed-patches; adults have dark red crown... Redpoll.
5.10 in. In small flocks in trees or on ground; call-notes sweet; flies high when startled; wings and tail black and white... Goldfinch.

B'.

5.50 in. Skulks in brush heaps; whistles loudly; conspicuous whitish line over eye... Carolina Wren.
4.06 in. Skulks in brush heaps or walls; dark brown and very small... Winter Wren.

B".

5.35 in. In small flocks in trees; crown dark brownish-gray... Hudsonian Chickadee.


Gray or Grayish.
A.

10.32 in. On tops of trees or bushes; upper parts gray; wings black and white... Northern Shrike.
10.00 in. Back gray; head black; breast bay... Robin.
9.08 in.** Slaty-gray; wing-bars white... ♀ Pine Grosbeak.


A".

12.00 in. In woods, often about logging camps; forehead white; nape black...Canada Jay.

[6.33 in. Size of English Sparrow.]

B

6.27 in. In flocks on the ground; head and breast dark slate-gray; outer tailfeathers white... Junco
6.22 in. In trees, often with red males; brownish-gray; streaked... ♀ Purple Finch.
6.19 in.* In or under trees, generally in conifers; often with red males; rump greenish-yellow... ♀ American Crossbill
6.05 in.** In or under trees, generally conifers; often with red males; wingbars white; rump greenish-yellow... ♀ White-winged Crossbill.
5.00 in.* In flocks in trees; under parts streaked; bar on wing yellow... Pine Siskin.
4.07 in. Restless in trees and thickets; top of head yellow or orange, enclosed in black; wing-bars white... Golden-crowned Kinglet.

B'.

6.00 in. (North as far as Orange, N. J., and Staten Island.) In trees; upper parts gray; crest conspicuous... Tufted Titmouse.

Yellow.
A.

7.75 in. In flocks; generally only on or near the sea-shore; throat and line over eye sulphur-yellow... Shore Lark.

Black and White.
A.

10.32 in. On tops of trees bushes; upper parts gray; wings and tail black and white... Northern Shrike.
[10.00 in. Size of Robin.]
9.40 in. On trunks or large limbs; white stripe down middle of back; wings barred with black and white... Hairy Woodpecker.
6.83 in. Similar to above, but commoner and smaller... Downy Woodpecker.
6.88 in. In flocks, generally only on or near sea-shore; wings and tail black with much white... Snow Bunting.

A".

8.75 in. On trunks and large limbs; back barred with black and white... American Three-toed Woodpecker.
[6.33 in. Size of English Sparrow.]

B

6.07 in. On trunks or limbs; crown black; back bluish-gray; under parts white... White-bellied Nuthatch.
5:27 in. In trees; top of head and throat black; sides of head white; wings gray... Chickadee.
4.62 in. On trunks or limbs; crown and line through eye black; back bluish; under parts reddish-brown or buffy... Red-bellied Nuthatch.

Black.
A

19.30 in. Entire plumage black... Crow.

A '

8.50 in. (Only near New York city or Long Island Sound.). Walks on ground; purplish or greenish at close range; feathers of upper parts heavily spotted with buff; bill blackish-brown.... Starling.

A".

17.00 in. Entire plumage black, except a red crest and a white bar on wing... Pileated Woodpecker.
9.50 in. On trunks and large limbs; back black; wings and tail black and white... Arctic Three-toed Woodpecker.

Red, Scarlet, or Rose.
A

10.00 in. Head black; breast bay... Robin.
9.08 in.** Entire plumage rose-red; brightest on head and rump: wing-bars white... Pine Grosbeak.

A'

8.25 in. (As far north as Central Park, N. Y.) Entire plumage red or reddish; crest conspicuous... Cardinal.

[6.33 in. Size of English Sparrow.]

B

6.22 in. In or under trees; entire upper parts and throat crimson; brightest on head and rump... Purple Finch.
6.19 in.* Entire bird vermilion-red; regular in northern New England... American Crossbill.
6.05 in.** Entire bird rose-red; wing-bars white; not so uncommon in northern New England... White-winged Crossbill.
5.32 in.** In flocks in birches or in weeds; crown dark crimson; breast and rump often pink... Redpoll.
4.62 in. On limbs of trees; back bluish; head black; line over eye white; under parts reddish-brown... Rod-bellied Nuthatch.

Blue.
A

11.74 in. In woodland or in trees near houses; much white in wings and tail... Blue Jay.

A'.

7.00 in. Upper parts bright blue; breast reddish-brown... ♂ Bluebird.
7.00 in. Upper parts grayish; wings and tail bluish; breast pale reddishbrown... ♀ Bluebird.

[6.33 in. Size of English Sparrow.]

B

6.07 in. On trunks or limbs; back bluish-gray; crown black; under parts white... White-bellied Nuthatch.
4.62 in.* On trunks or limbs; back bluish-gray; crown and line through eye black; under parts reddish-brown or buffy; less irregular in northern New England... Red-bellied Nuthatch.

KEY FOR MARCH

Brown or Brownish.
A.

12.00 in. Flies from or to trees; rump white... Flicker.
10.75. Whistles in tree-tops; feeds in grass; shows white tail-feathers.... Meadowlark.
10.00. Head black; breast bay... Robin.
7.75 in. On or near the beach; throat yellow... Shore Lark.
7.26 in. (Arrives about March 15.) Scratches on the ground; tail reddishbrown; breast spotted... Fox Sparrow.
7.19 in. In flocks in trees; plump, sleek; eats fruit... Cedar-bird.

A'.

8.25 in. (As far north as Central Park, N. Y.) Crest, wings, and tail tinged with reddish... ♀ Cardinal.
7.17 in. Low in thickets; tail reddish-brown; breast spotted; not common... Hermit Thrush.
6.74 in. Scratches on ground; tail brown; throat white... White-throated Sparrow.

[6.33 in. English Sparrow.]

B

6.36 in. In flocks on the ground; wing-bars white; breast unstreaked, with small dusky spot in centre... Tree Sparrow.
6.30 in. Sings a bright song from bush or small tree; breast streaked with dark blotch in centre... Song Sparrow.
6.27 in. Brownish-gray; in flocks with slate-gray males; outer tail-feathers white... ♀ Junco.
6.25 in. Only in beach grass... Ipswich Sparrow.
5.66 in. Clings close to tree-trunks... Brown Creeper.
5.65 in. In small filocks; common near sea-shore or in bayberry patches; rump yellow... Myrtle Warbler.
5.32 in.** Grayish-brown; feeds in birches or in weed-patches; adults with dark red crown... Redpoll.
5.10 in. In small flocks in trees or on the ground; call-notes sweet; flies high when startled; wings and tail black and white... Goldfinch.

B'.

5.50 in. (Very rare in New England.) Skulks in brush; whistles loudly; conspicuous whitish line over eye... Carolina Wren.
4.06 in. Skulks in brush heaps or walls; dark brown and very small... Winter Wren,

B''.

5.35 in. In small flocks trees; crown dark brownish-gray... Hudsonian Chickadee.

Gray or Grayish.
A.

10.32 in. On tops of trees or bushes; upper parts gray; wings and tail black... Northern Shrike.
10.00 in. Back gray; head black or gray; breast bay... Robin.
9.08 in.** Slaty-gray; wing-bars white... ♀ Pine Grosbeak.
6.99 in. (Arrives after March 15.) Brownish-gray; about farm-buildings or near water; tail frequently jerked; note pha'bee. ...Phoebe.

A".

12.00 in. In woods, often about logging-camps; forehead white; nape black... Canada Jay.

[6.33 in. Size of English Sparrow.]

B.

6.27 in. In flocks on the ground; head and breast dark slate-gray; outer tail-feathers white... Junco.
6.22 in. In trees; often with red males; brownish-gray, streaked... ♀ Purple Finch.
6.19 in.* In trees; generally in conifers, often with red males; rump greenish-yellow... ♀ American Crossbill.
6.05 in.** In or under trees; generally in conifers, often with red males ; wing-bars white; rump greenish-yellow... ♀ White-winged Crossbill.
5.00 in.* In flocks in trees; under parts streaked; bar on wing yellow...Pine Siskin.
4.07 in. Restless in trees; top of head yellow or orange, inclosed in black; wing-bars white... Golden-crowned Kinglet.

B'.

6.00 in. (North as far as Orange, N. J., and Staten Island.) In trees; upper parts gray; crest conspicuous... Tufted Titmouse.

Yellow.
A.

7.75 in. In flocks, generally only on or near the sea-shore; throat and line over eye sulphur-yellow... Shore Lark.

Black and White.
A.

10.32 in. On tops of trees or bushes; upper parts gray; wings and tail black and white...Northern Shrike
[10.00 in. Size of Robin.]
9.40 in. On trunks or large limbs; wings barred with black and white; stripe of white down middle of back... Hairy Woodpecker.
6.83 in. Similar to above, but commoner and smaller... Downy Woodpecker.
6.88 in. In flocks, generally only on or near the sea-shore; wings and tail black with much white... Snow Bunting.

A".

8.75 in. On trunks and large limbs; back barred with black and white... American Three-toed Woodpecker.

[6.33 in. Size of English Sparrow.]

B

6.07 in. On limbs or trunks; crown black; back bluish-gray; under parts white... White-bellied Nuthatch.
5.27 in. In trees; top of head and throat black; sides of head white; wings gray...Chickadee.
4.62 in. On trunks or limbs; crown and line through eye black; back bluish; under parts reddish-brown or buffy... Red-bellied Nuthatch.

Black
A.

19.30 in. Entire plumage black... Crow.
12.00-13.50 in. In flocks in evergreens or walking on ground; tail long ; head lustrous blue-black... Crow Blackbird.
[10.00 in. Size of Robin.]
9.55 in. Near water; no red or white on wing; eye white... Rusty Blackbird.
9.51 in. Near water; red on shoulders or white bar on upper wing; note okaree ... Red-winged Blackbird.
7.92 in. On the ground in fields, or flying over, or lighting in trees; head dark, rich brown... Cowbird.

A'.

8.50 in. (Only near New York city and Long Island Sound.) Walks on ground; purplish or greenish at close range; feathers of upper parts heavily spotted with buff; bill blackish-brown Starling.

A"

17.00 in. Entire plumage black, except a red crest, and a white bar on wing... Northern Pileated Woodpecker.
9.50 in. On trunks and large limbs; back black; wings and tail black and white... Arctic Three-toed Woodpecker.

Red, Scarlet, or Rose.
A.

10.00 in. Head black or gray; breast bay... Robin.
9.08 in.** Entire plumage rose-red; brightest on head and rump; wingbars white... Pine Grosbeak.

A'.

8.25 in. (As far north as Central Park.) Entire plumage red or reddish; crest conspicuous... Cardinal.

[6.33 in. Size of English Sparrow.]

B.

6.22 in. In or under trees; entire upper parts and throat crimson; brightest on head and rump... Purple Finch.
6.19 in.* Entire bird vermilion-red; regular in northern New England... American Crossbill.
6.05 in.** Entire bird rose-red; wing-bars white, not so uncommon in northern New England... White-winged Crossbill.
5.32 in.** In flocks in birches or in weedy patches; crown dark crimson; breast and rump often pink... Redpoll Linnet.
4.62 in. On limbs of trees; back bluish; head black; line over eye white;under parts reddish-brown... Red-bellied Nuthatch.

Blue.
A.

11.74 in. In woodland, or in trees near houses; much white in wings and tail... Blue Jay.
7.00 in. Upper parts bright blue; breast reddish-brown.... ♂ Bluebird.
7.00 in. Upper parts grayish; wings and tail bluish; breast pale reddishbrown... ♀ Bluebird.

B

6.07 in. On trunks or limbs; back bluish-gray; crown black; under parts white... White-bellied Nuthatch.
4.62 in.* On trunks or limbs; back bluish-gray; crown and line through eye black; under parts reddish-brown or buffy; less irregular in northern New England... Red-bellied Nuthatch.

Brown or Brownish.
A.

12.00 in. Flies to and from trees; rump white... Flicker.
11.42 in. Upper parts reddish-brown; tail very long; flies into bushes when disturbed... Brown Thrasher.
10.75 in. Whistles in tree-tops, or from posts; feeds in the grass; outer tailfeathers white... Meadowlark.
10.00 in. Wings brownish; head black; breast bay... Robin
8.00 in. (Arrives April 20.) A large swallow, living in boxes set on poles; with blue-black males... ♀ Purple Martin.
7.92 in. Walking on ground, or lighting in trees; generally with black males; breast unstreaked... ♀ Cowbird.
7.75 in. (Leaves April 10.) In flocks, on or near the sea-shore; throat yellow... Shore Lark.
7.26 in. (Leaves April 20.) Fox-color; breast heavily spotted; scratches on ground... Fox Sparrow.
7.19 in. In flocks in trees; plump, sleek; eats fruit...Cedar-bird.
7.17 in. On the ground, or on low limbs; breast spotted; tail reddish-brown... Hermit Thrush.
6.99 in. About farm-buildings, or near water; tail frequently jerked; note phe°bee . . Phoebe.
6.74 in. (Arrives April 20.) In flocks; scratches on the ground; throat white; tail brown... White-throated Sparrow.
[6.33 in. Size of English Sparrow.]

B.

6.36 in. In flocks on the ground; wing-bars white; dusky spot on unstreaked breast... Tree Sparrow.
6.30 in. Singing from bush or low tree, or feeding on ground; dark blotch in centre of streaked breast ... Song Sparrow.
6.27 in. Brownish-gray; in flocks with slate-gray males; outer tail-feathers white... ♀ Junco.
6.25 in. (Leaves April 10.) Only in beach grass... Ipswich Sparrow.
6.12 in. In pastures and near cultivated fields; breast streaked; outer tailfeathers white... Vesper Sparrow.
5.89 in. In marshes; breast unstreaked; crown chestnut... Swamp Sparrow.
5.68 in. In bushy pastures, and cedar-covered hillsides; breast unstreaked; song sweet and clear... Field Sparrow.
5.68 in. In grass-land; breast streaked... Savanna Sparrow.
5.06 in. Clinging close to trunks of trees... Brown Creeper.
5.65 in. In small flocks; often in bayberry bushes near the sea-shore... ♀ Myrtle Warbler.
5.37 in. Near houses or farming land, or in cedars; breast unstreaked; song unmusical... Chipping Sparrow.
5:32 in.** Brownish-gray; in restless flocks; feeds in birches or in weedy patches... Redpoll.
5.10 in. In flocks in trees, or in weedy patches; throat tinged with yellow; wings black and white... Goldfinch.
4.06 in. (Arrives April 10.) Dark brown; skulks in brush-heaps or in stone walls... Winter Wren.

B'.

5.50 in. (Very rare in New England.) Skulks in brush; whistles loud; conspicuous whitish line over eye... Carolina Wren.

B"

5.35 in. In trees; crown dark brownish-gray... Hudsonian Chickadee.

Gray or Grayish.
A

10.00 in. Back gray; head black, or dark gray; breast bay... Robin.
7.92 in. Light brownish-gray; unstreaked; generally with black males... ♀ Cowbird.
6.99 in. Brownish-gray; about farm buildings, or near water; tail frequently jerked; note phæ'bee ... Phoebe.

A"

12.00 in. In woods; often about logging-camps; forehead white; nape black... Canada Jay.
10.32 in. On tops of trees or bushes; wings and tail black and white... Northern Shrike.
9.00 in. Rare, except in western Vermont; similar to above... Loggerhead Shrike.
9.08 in. Slaty-gray; wing-bars white... ♀ Pine Grosbeak.

[6.33 in. Size of English Sparrow.]

B

6.27 in. In flocks on the ground; head and breast dark gray; outer tailfeathers white... Junco.
6.22 in. In trees; often with rose-red males; brownish-gray; streaked... ♀ Purple Finch.
6.19 in.* In trees; generally conifers; often with red males; rump greenishyellow... ♀ American Crossbill.
6.05 in.** In flocks; generally in conifers; often with rose-red males; wingbars white; rump greenish-yellow... ♀ White-winged Crossbill.
5.61 in. (Arrives April 15.) In trees; head slaty-gray; line to and around eye white... Solitary Vireo
5.41 in. (Arrives April 20.) Perches in trees in Alycatcher fashion; wing-bars white; note sharp, tse-bic' . ... Least Flycatcher.
5.00 in.* In flocks in trees; under parts streaked; bar on wing yellow... Pine Finch.
4.41 in. (Arrives April 10.) Restless in trees and thickets; song loud and musical; eye prominent... Ruby-crowned Kinglet.
4.07 in. Restless in trees and thickets; top of head yellow or orange, inclosed in black; note tsee-tsee-tsee... Golden-crowned Kinglet.

B'.

6.28 in. Along water-courses ; under parts streaked with black; tail constantly tilted; song loud and ringing... Louisiana Water-thrush.

Yellow without Black.
B.

[6.33 in. Size of English Sparrow].

5.65 in. In trees; rump, crown-patch, and patches on sides of upper belly yellow; throat white... Myrtle Warbler.
5.52 in. In pines; occasionally on the ground; wing-bars white; throat yellow... Pine Warbler.
5.43 in. In trees; often on the ground; crown chestnut; under parts bright yellow; tail constantly wagged...Palm Warbler

Black and White.
A

[10.00 in. Size of Robin.]
9.40 in. On trunks or large limbs; white stripe down middle of back; wings barred with black and white ... Hairy Woodpecker.
8.56 in. On trunks or large limbs ; back speckled with black and white; white stripe along edge of wing... Sapsucker.
8.35 in. Head black; tail black and white; scratching on the ground near bushes... Towhee.
6.83 in. On trunks or large limbs; white stripe down middle of back; wings barred with black and white... Downy Woodpecker.

[6.33 in. Size of English Sparrow.]

B

6.07 in. On limbs or trunks; crown black; back bluish-gray; under parts white... White-bellied Nuthatch.
5.65 in. In trees; throat white; black patches on sides of upper breast; sides of belly, crown patch, and rump, yellow... Myrtle Warbler.
5.30 in. On trunks or large limbs; striped black and white... Black and White Warbler.
5.27 in. In trees; top of head and throat black; cheeks white; wings gray... Chickadee.
4.62 in. On trunks or large limbs; crown and line through eye black; back bluish; under parts reddish-brown or buffy... Red-bellied Nuthatch.

A"

12.00 in. In woods; often about logging-camps; forehead white; nape black... Canada Jay.
10.32 in. On tops of trees or bushes; wings and tail black and white... Northern Shrike.
8.75 in. On trunks and large limbs; back barred with black and wbite... American Three-toed Woodpecker.

Black.
A.

19.30 in. Entire plumage black... Crow.
12–13.50 in. In flocks in evergreens, or walking on ground; tail long; head lustrous blue-black... Crow Blackbird.
[10.00 in. Size of Robin.]
9.55 in. In flocks near water; no red or white on wing; eye white... Rusty Blackbird.
9.51 in. Near water; red on shoulders or white bar on upper wing; aote okaree... Red-winged Blackbird.
8.00 in. (Arrives April 20.) Entire body blue-black; a large swallow, living in boxes set on poles... Purple Martin.
7.92 in. On the ground in fields, or flying over, or lighting in trees; head dark, rich brown Cowbird.

A '.

8.50 in. (Only near New York city or Long Island Sound.) Walks on ground; purplish or greenish at close range; feathers of upper parts tipped with buff; bill yellow... ♂ Starling.
8.50 in. Similar to above; more heavily spotted below... ♀ Starling.

A "

17.00 in. Entire plumage black, except a red crest, and a white bar on wing... Northern Pileated Woodpecker.
9.50 in. On trunks or large limbs; back black; wings and tail black and white... Arctic Three-toed Woodpecker.

Red, Scarlet, or Rose.

10.00 in. Head black or gray; breast bay... Robin.
8.56 in. On trunks or large limbs; whole top of head, and in male, throat dark red; back speckled black and white... Sapsucker.
8.35 in. On ground near bushes, or singing in trees; head black; sides of breast and belly chestnut; tail black and white... Towhee.

A'

8.25 in. (As far north as Central Park, N. Y.) Entire plumage red or reddish; crest conspicuous... Cardinal.

A"

9.08 in. Entire bird rose-red; wing-bars white... Pine Grosbeak.

[6.33 in. Size of English Sparrow.]

B

6.22 in. In trees or feeding on ground; entire upper parts and throat crimson; brightest on head and rump... ♂ Purple Finch.
6.19 in.* Entire bird vermilion-red; regular in northern New England... American Crossbill.
6.05 in.* .** Entire bird rose-red; wing-bars white; not so irregular in northern New England... White-winged Crossbill.
5.32 in.** In flocks in birches or in weedy patches; crown dark crimson; breast and rump often pink... Redpoll.
4.62 in.* On limbs of trees; back bluish; head black; line over eye white; under parts reddish-brown... Red-bellied Nuthatch.

Blue
A

13.02 in. Near water; much white showing in wings and tail; bill long and pointed... Kingfisher.
11.74 in. In woodland, or in trees near houses; much white in wings and tail... Blue Jay.
[10.00 in. Size of Robin.]
8.00 in. Blue-black. (See under Black)... Purple Martin.
7.00 in. Upper parts deep blue; breast reddish-brown... ♀ Bluebird.
7.00 in. Upper parts grayish; wings and tail bluish... ♂ Bluebird.
6.95 in. Upper parts deep blue; tail long and deeply forked; throat chestnut; rest of under parts whitish or salmon... Barn Swallow.

[6.33 in. Size of English Sparrow.]

B

6.07 in. On trunks and limbs; back bluish-gray; crown black; under parts white... White-bellied Nuthatch.
5.90 in. Upper parts greenish-blue; tail merely notched; under parts white... Tree Swallow
4.62 in.* On trunks and limbs; back bluish; crown and line through eye black; under parts reddish-brown or buffy... Red-bellied Nuthatch.


KEY FOR MAY

Brown or Brownish.
A.

12.20 in. In trees; very slender; tail long; under parts white... Yellow-billed Cuckoo.
11.83 in. Black-billed Cuckoo. 12.00. Flies from or to trees; rump white... Flicker.
11.42 in. Reddish-brown; tail long; sings high in trees; flies into bushes when disturbed... Thrasher.
10.75 in. Whistles in tree-tops, or from posts; feeds in grass; outer tail-feathers white... Meadowlark.
9.75 in. Flutters from ground in woods; band across neck white... Whip-poor-will.
9.01 in. In trees; notes loud and harsh; belly yellow; tail reddish-brown... Crested Flycatcher.
8.35 in. On ground, or in thickets; tail-feathers tipped with white; flanks reddish-brown... ♀ Chewink.
8.29 in. On ground or on low limbs; head reddishi-brown; breast white; spotted with black; song beautiful... Wood Thrush.
8.25 in. (North as far as Central Park, N. Y.) Crest, wings, and tail tinged with reddish... ♀ Cardinal.
8.12 in. In trees; streaked with grayish; whitish line over eye; white wing bar; bill very large... ♀ Rose-breasted Grosbeak.
8 00 in. Near swampy ground; blackish-brown; often with black red-shouldered males... ♀ Red-winged Blackbird.
7.52 in. In wet woods; upper parts tawny-brown ; breast not distinctly spotted... Wilson's Thrush.
7.58–7.00 in. On ground or low limbs; breast white, spotted with black; upper parts grayish-brown... Gray-cheeked Thrush.
7.17 in. Like above, but eve-ring white; cheek buffy... Olive-backed Thrush.
7.17 in. (Generally only till May 10.) On ground, or low limbs; breast white, spotted with black; tail reddish-brown, often slowly raised... Hermit Thrush.
7.25 in. Grayish-brown; walking on ground, or lighting in trees, often with black males... ♀ Cowbird.
7.19 in. In trees; often in flocks; head and throat rich brown; belly yellowish; tail-feathers tipped with yellow; head crested... Cedar-bird.
7.12 in. In grassy fields ; under parts vellowish-brown, unstreaked; generally with black and white males... ♀ Bobolink.
6.99 in. About farm-buildings, or near water; tail constantly jerked; flies out into the air after insects... Phoebe.
6.88 in. Feeds on ground ; head marked with bright black and white; no yellow line over eye; throat not white... White-crowned Sparrow.
6.74 in. Feeds on ground; head marked with bright black and white; line over eye yellow; throat white... White-throated Sparrow.

[6.33 in. Size of English Sparrow.]

B.

6.30 in. Wherever there are bushes and water; breast streaked, with dark blotch in centre... Song Sparrow.
6.23 in. In trees; entire under parts grayish-white, unstreaked... Red-eyed Vireo.
6.17 in. In dry woods; on ground or low limbs ; breast streaked with black... Oven-bird.
6.12 in. In pastures or near cultivated fields; breast streaked; outer tailfeathers white... Vesper Sparrow.
5.89 in. In marshes; breast dark, unstreaked; crown chestnut... Swamp Sparrow.
5.85 in. In salt marshes... Sharp-tailed Sparrow.
5.80 in. In trees; common in village streets; entire under parts white, unstreaked... Warbling Vireo.
5.68 in. In grass-land; breast streaked... Savanna Sparrow.
5.68 in. In bushy pastures and hillsides; often in cedars; breast unstreaked; song musical...Field Sparrow.
5.59 in. In bushes or small trees; unstreaked ; tail nervously twitched to the side... ♀ Indigo-bird.
5.52 in. In pines; upper parts brownish ; under parts dull whitish; wingbars dull white... ♀ Pine Warbler.
5.38 in. (Not common north of latitude of Boston.) In dry sterile fields; breast buffy, unstreaked; song insect-like... Grasshopper Sparrow.
5.37 in. Near houses or farming land, or in cedars; breast ashy, unstreaked; song unmusical... Chipping Sparrow.
5.20 in. In salt marshes or cat-tail swamps; clings to stalks with tail cocked; song bubbling... Long-billed Marsh Wren.
5.00 in. In wet meadows, or on ill-drained hillsides; breast streaked; sings from low perch; note flee-sic'; rare... Henslow's Sparrow.
5.00 in. In orchards or about buildings; tail often cocked over back... House Wren.
4.00 in. In marshy meadows; clings to stalks with tail cocked; song not bubbling... Short-billed Marsh Wren.

B'.

6.00 in. In salt marshes; not found north of Long Island Sound... Seaside Sparrow.
5.50 in. (Very rare in southern Connecticut; not uncommon in the lower Hudson Valley.) Skulks in bushes; whistles loudly ; conspicuous whitish line over eye... Carolina Wren.

B".

5.35 in. In trees, chiefly spruces; crown brownish-gray... Hudsonian Chickadee. Gray or Grayish.

A'.

10.00 in. Breast reddish; in trees or on ground... Robin.
10.00 in. Lengthwise on limbs, or on exposed stones; bar across wing white; wings long; flight swallow-like... Nighthawk.
8.94 in. Dark slaty-gray; in bushes, or feeding on ground... Catbird.
6.99 in. About farm buildings or near water; flies out into the air after insects; tail constantly jerked...Phæbe.
6.53 in. (After May 15.) In groves or street trees; wing-bars white; flies out into the air after insects; song pee-ee-wee...Wood Pewee.

[6.33 in. Size of English Sparrow.]

B.

6.23 in. In trees; breast whitish, unstreaked... Red-eyed Vireo.
6.22 in. In trees or occasionally on ground; brownish-gray, streaked; often with rose-colored males... ♀ Purple Finch.
6.19 in.* In flocks, often with red males; note when flying kip, kip... ♀ Red Crossbill.
6.05 in.** In flocks, in trees or on ground, sometimes with red males; wingbars white... ♀ White-winged Crossbill.
6.09 in. (Rare late in May.) In alder thickets; note quee-quee'...Alder Flycatcher.
5.41 in. In trees in open country; note emphatic tse-bic'; flies out into the air after insects; sits upright on a perch... Least Flycatcher.
6.04 in. On ground near water; tail constantly wagged... Water-thrush.
5.80 in. In trees; common in village streets; song arbling... Warbling Vireo.
5.61 in. (Generally only till May 10.) In trees; head dark; notes rich and sweet... Solitary Vireo.
5.56 in. (After May 15.) Restless in trees; sides streaked with black... ♀ Black-poll Warbler.
5.28 in. (After May 15.) In trees ; generally with other small birds; spot on wing white... ♀ Black-throated Blue Warbler.
5.27 in. (Rare north of Connecticut.) In thickets; under parts yellowish; note loud, emphatic... White-eyed Vireo.
5.00 in. (Rare, except in northern New York and New England.) In trees; under parts streaked; bars on wing yellow... Pine Siskin.
4.41 in. (May 1-10.) Restless in trees and thickets; eye prominent; song loud and musical... Ruby-crowned Kinglet.

B'.

6.28 in. Near water; under parts streaked with black; tail constantly wagged... Louisiana Water-thrush.
6.00 in. (As far north as Orange, N. J., and Staten Island.) In trees; upper parts gray; crest conspicuous...Tufted Titmouse.
5.75 in. (As far north as Sing Sing, N. Y.; absent in New England.) Sits upright on a perch, or flies out for insects... Green-crested Flycatcher.
5:51 in. Back greenish-gray; head striped with black and buff... Worm-eating Warbler.

B"

6.27 in. Head and upper breast slaty-gray; outer tail-feathers white... Junco.
6.19 in. In trees; generally conifers; often with red males; rump greenishyellow... ♀ American Crossbill.
6.05 in. In trees; generally in conifers, at high altitudes; wing-bars white; rump greenish-yellow... ♀ White-winged Crossbill.
4.07 in. Active in trees, generally conifers; top of head yellow or orange, inclosed in black; note isee-tsee-tsee... Golden-crowned Kinglet.

Yellow or Orange, without Black.
A.

10.75 in. Breast yellow; back brown; in meadows... Meadowlark.
10.00 in. [Size of Robin.]
9.01 in. Belly yellow; throat and breast ashy; note loud... Crested Flycatcher.
7.44 in. (Rare north of Connecticut.) In thickets and clearings; upper parts greenish; throat and breast bright yellow; very noisy... Yellow-breasted Chat.
7.53 in. In trees; under parts and middle of back dull orange; wing-bars white... ♀ Baltimore Oriole.
7.32 in. (Rare north of Connecticut.) Under parts dull yellow; upper parts grayish-green... ♀ Orchard Oriole.
7.25 in. In trees; under parts greenish-yellow; upper parts olive-green... ♀ Tanager.

[6.33 in. Size of English Sparrow.]

B

6.17 in. Crown dull orange; back brownish; breast spotted... Oven-bird.
5.95 in. Throat bright yellow; in trees; not restless; song loud and rich... Yellow-throated Vireo.
5.65 in. Rump yellow; back brownish; restless in trees... ♀ Myrtle Warbler.
5.61 in. (Arrives May 10.) Low in woodland; under parts yellow... ♀ Canadian Warbler.
5:52 in. Generally in pines; throat bright yellow; song rippling... Pine Warbler.
5.43 in. (Mayl-10.) Under parts bright yellow; crown reddish-brown; tail frequently wagged... Yellow Palm Warbler.
5.41 in. Restless in trees and thickets; sides of breast, wing, and band across tail yellow... ♀ Redstart.
5.33 in. In bushes in wet places; yellow brightest on throat; back brownish... ♀ Northern Yellow-throat.
5.27 in. (Rare north of Connecticut ) Sides washed with yellowish; eye ring and line to forehead yellow; note loud and emphatic... White-eyed Vireo.
5.25 in. Throat dull yellow; back black, streaked with whitish; wing-patch white; rare... ♀ Blackburnian Warbler.
5.14 in. In open woodland and roadside thickets; top of head yellow; cheeks and under parts white; narrow stripe along sides reddish-brown... Chestnut-sided Warbler.
5.10 in. In flocks, with bright yellow and black males; throat yellowish; back brownish... ♀ Goldfinch.
5.10 in. Yellow all over; greenish-yellow on back; clear yellow or orangeyellow below... Yellow Warbler.
5.00 in. Under parts and forehead yellow'; very restless in trees; near water... ♀ Wilson's Warbler.
5.00 in. (Rare, except in northern New York and New England.) Wing bars yellow; entire plumage streaked... Pine Siskin.
4.77 in. Under parts bright yellow; head ashy; very restless, in scrubby growth... Nashville Warbler.

Yellow, Orange, or Chestnut, with Black.

[10.00 in. Size of Robin.]

A.

7.53 in. In trees; head black; breast and belly reddish-orange; wings black, with white wing-bars ; tail black and yellow... Baltimore Oriole.
7.32 in. (Rare north of Connecticut.) In trees; head black; breast and belly chestnut; no yellow in tail... Orchard Oriole.

[6.33 in. Size of English Sparrow.]

B.

5.65 in. In trees, often flying out for an insect; rump yellow; patch on each side of breast yellow; throat white... Myrtle Warbler.
5.63 in. (Very rare late in May.) Belly yellow; head and throat bluish• gray; breast black; haunts dry banks... Mourning Warbler.
5.61 in. Low in wet places; under parts yellow; necklace of spots across breast black... Canadian Warbler.
5.41 in. Restless in trees or thickets; head lustrous black; orange or yellow on sides of breast, wing, and tail; latter constantly spread... Redstart.
5.33 in. In bushes in wet places; throat yellow; broad band through eye black; song witchery, witchery, or wee-see'-sir, wee-see'-sir... Northern Yellow-throat.
5.25 in. (Rare in eastern New England.) In trees, often conifers; throat rich orange; head and back black, with white markings... Blackburnian Warbler.
5.12 in. (May 10-25.) In trees, often conifers; under parts bright yellow, streaked with deep black; head bluish-ash ; rump yellow; back black with white on wings and tail... Magnolia Warbler.
5.10 in. In trees, especially pines; throat and sides of breast black; cheeks yellow; song hoarse but musical... Black-throated Green Warbler.
5.10 in. In scrubby pastures and edges of woodland; throat black; top of head and band on wing yellow; song zēē zee-zee-zee... Golden-winged Warbler.
5.10 in. In flocks; back and under parts bright yellow; forehead black; wings and tail black and white; notes sweet... Goldfinch.
5.00 in. In trees in wet places; under parts yellow; cap black; rare... Wilson's Warbler.
5.00 in. In trees ; under parts yellow, streaked with black; crown black; very rare... Cape May Warbler.
4.75 in. In dry, scrubby woodland; under parts bright yellow; sides streaked with black... Prairie Warbler.

B'.

5.67 in. In wet woods and in laurel; back of head and throat black; forehead and cheeks yellow... Hooded Warbler.
5.40 in. In wet woods; line over eye yellow; sides of throat black... Kentucky Warbler.
4.80 in. In dry, scrubby growth; top of head and under parts yellow; line through eye black; wing-bars white... Blue-winged Warbler.

Black and White.
A.

[10.00 in. Size of Robin.]
9.40 in. On trunks or large limbs; under parts white; wings barred with black and white ; stripe of white down middle of back... Hairy Woodpecker.
8.51 in. Flying from exposed perch; under parts white; head black; tail black, tipped with white... Kingbird.
8.35 in. Scratching in thickets, or singing from bush or low tree; head black; sides chestnut; tail-feathers tipped with white... Towhee.
8.12 in. In trees; head and back black; wings and tail black and white; breast white, with a spot of rose in centre... Rose-breasted Grosbeak.
7.25 in. In or near grassy fields; under parts black; upper parts chiefly dull white... Bobolink.
6,83 in. On trunks or large limbs; under parts white; wings barred black and white ; stripe of white down middle of back... Downy Woodpecker.

B.

[6.33 in. Size of English Sparrow.]
6.07 in. On limbs or trunks; crown black; under parts white; back bluishgray... White-bellied Nuthatch.
5.56 in. (May 15-30.) Restless in trees, not on the large limbs; crown plain black; back and breast streaked... Black-poll Warbler.
5.30 in. On trunks and large limbs of trees; head black, with white line through centre... Black and White Warbler.
5.28 in. In trees; throat and sides black; upper parts dark bluish; spot on wing white... Black-throated Blue Warbler.
5.27 in. In trees; top of head and throat black; cheeks white; wings gray... Chickadee.
4.62 in.* On limbs and trunks; head and line through eye black; back bluish ; under parts reddish-brown or buffy... Red-bellied Nuthatch.

A".

12.00 in. In woods; often about logging-camps; forehead white; nape black... Canada Jay.
9.00 in. On tops of trees or bushes ; wings and tail black and white... Loggerhead Shrike.
8.75 in. On trunks and large limbs; back barred with black and white... American Three-toed Woodpecker.
8.56 in. On trunks or large limbs ; back speckled with black and white; white stripe along edge of wing... Sapsucker.

Black.
A.

19.30 in. Entire plumage black... Crow.
13.50-12.00 in. In pines or walking on ground; tail long; head lustrous blueblack... Crow Blackbird.
[10.00 in. Size of Robin.]
9.55 in. (May 1-10.) Near water; no red or white on wing; eye white... Rusty Blackbird.
9.51 in. Near water; red on shoulders, or white bar on upper wing... Red-winged Blackbird.
7.92 in. On ground in fields, or flying over, or lighting in trees; head dark brown... Cowbird.

Black.
A'.

8.50 in. (Only near New York city or Long Island Sound.) Purplish or greenish at close range; feathers of upper parts tipped with buff; bill yellow... Starling.

A".

17.00 in. In woods; head with long red crest... Pileated Woodpecker.
9.50 in. On trunks or large limbs of trees; back plain black; crown' in male with yellow patch... Arctic Three-toed Woodpecker.

Red, Scarlet, or Rose.
A.

8.35 in. On ground near bushes, or singing in trees; head and upper breast black; belly white; tail black and white; sides of breast and belly chestnut...Towhee.
8.12 in. In trees; spot of rose ou breast; head black; wings and tail black and white... Rose-breasted Grosbeak.
7.25 in. In trees; whole body red; wings and tail black... Scarlet Tanager.

A'.

8.25 in. (As far north as Central Park, N. Y.) Entire plumage red or reddish; crest conspicuous... Cardinal.

A".

8.56 in. On large limbs and trunks; top of head and in male throat dark red; back speckled with white; edge of black wing white... Yellow-bellied Sapsucker.
[6.33 in. Size of English Sparrow.]

B

6.22 in. Entire upper parts and throat crimson, brightest on head and rump... Purple Finch.
6.19 in.* Entire bird vermilion-red; regular in northern New England... American Crossbill.
6.05 in.** Entire bird rose-red; wing-bars white; not so uncommon in northern New England... White-winged Crossbill.
5.63 in. In trees; crown, throat, upper breast, and sides bay; wing-bars white... Bay-breasted Warbler.
5.25 in. (Rare in eastern New England.) In trees, often evergreen; throat rich orange; back black, streaked with whitish; patch on wing white... Blackburnian Warbler.

Blue.
A

13.02 in. Perched near water, or flying over it; much white showing in wings and tail; bill long and pointed... Kingfisher.
11.74 in. In woodland, or in trees near houses; much white in wings and tail; band across breast black; crest often raised... Blue Jay.
(10.00 in. Size of Robin.]
7.01 in. Upper parts deep blue; breast reddish-brown...♂ Bluebird.
7.01 in. Upper parts grayish; breast pale reddish; wings and tail bluish... ♀ Bluebird.
[6.33 in. Size of English Sparrow.]

B

6.07 in. On limbs and trunks of trees; back bluish-gray; top of head black; under parts white... White-bellied Nuthatoh.
5.59 in. Sings from a high perch, near bushes; entire body deep blue... Indigo-bird.
5.28 in. (Arrives May 10.) In trees; throat black; upper parts dark blue;spot on wing white...Black-throated Blue Warbler.
4.73 in. In trees; head and black bluish-gray; throat yellowish with brown spot... Parula Warbler.

B".

4.62 in. On limbs and trunks of trees; under parts reddish-brown; black line through eye... Red-bellied Nuthatch.

KEY FOR SUMMER
(JUNE, JULY, AUGUST)

Brown or Brownish.
A

12.20 in. In trees; very slender; tail long; under parts white... Yellow-Billed Cuckoo
11.83 in. In trees; very slender; tail long; under parts white... Black-Billed Cuckoo
12.00 in. Flies from or to trees; rump white... Flicker.
11.42 in. Upper parts reddish-brown; tail very long; flies into bushes when disturbed... Thrasher.
10.75 in. Whistles in tree-tops, or from posts; feeds in grass; outer tailfeathers white... Meadowlark.
10.00 in. Breast bay... Robin.
9.75 in. Flutters from ground in woods as if bewildered; band across upper breast white or buff... Whip-poor-will.
9.01 in. In trees; notes loud and harsh; belly yellow; tail reddish-brown... Crested Flycatcher.
8.35 in. On ground under bushes; tail-feathers tipped with white; flanks reddish-brown... ♀ Towhee.
8.29 in. On ground in woods, or on low limbs; breast white, heavily spotted; head reddish-brown... Wood Thrush.
8.12 in. In trees; breast lightly streaked; line over eye and bar on wing white; no red on breast... ♀ Rose-breasted Grosbeak.
8.00 in. In bushes near water; blackish-br n; streaked... ♀ Red-winged Blackbird.
7.75 in. (Very rare in southern and eastern New England.) Walks or runs on the ground in grassy fields; throat tinged with yellow; stripe through eye, sides of throat, and patch on breast black... Prairie Horned Lark.
7.52 in. In wet woods; upper parts tawny-brown; breast not spotted with... Wilson's Thrush.
7.25 in. Walking on ground in fields, or lighting in trees; unstreaked... ♀ Cowbird.
7.19 in. In trees; head and neck snuff-brown; line through eye velvetyblack; crest often raised; tail-feathers tipped with yellow.... Cedar-bird.
7.17 in.(Rare in eastern and southern New England after May 10.) Breast spotted with black; tail reddish-brown... Hermit Thrush.
7.12 in. In grass-fields; under parts yellowish-brown; unstreaked... ♀ Bobolink.
6.99 in. About farm buildings, or near water; tail constantly jerked; breast unstreaked; flies out from perch for insects... Phoebe.

A"

12.00 in. In woods and about camps. Entire plumage sooty brown... Im. Canada Jay.
7.17 in. Breast white, spotted with black; eye-ring white; cheek buffy... Olive-backed Thrush.
7.17 in. On ground, or low limbs; breast spotted with black; tail reddishbrown... Hermit Thrush.
7.00 in. (On mountains above 3000 ft.) On ground, or on low limbs; breast white, spotted with black... Bicknell's Thrush.
6.74 in. On ground, or in bushes; head marked with black and white; line over eye yellow; throat white... White-throated Sparrow.
[6.33 in. Size of English Sparrow.]

B

6.30 in. Wherever there are bushes and water ; breast streaked, with dark blotch in centre...Song Sparrow.
6.23 in. trees; entire under parts grayish-white, unstreaked... Red-eyed Vireo.
6.17 in. In dry woods, on ground or low limbs ; teeters as it walks; breast streaked with black... Oven-bird.
6.12 in. In pastures and near cultivated fields; breast streaked... Vesper Sparrow.
5.89 in. In marshes; breast dark, unstreaked; cap chestnut... Swamp Sparrow.
5.85 in. In salt marshes... Sharp-tailed Sparrow.
5.80 in. In trees; common in village streets; entire under parts white, unstreaked... Warbling Vireo.
5.68 in. In grass land ; breast streaked . p. 170. Savanna Sparrow. 5.68. In bushy pastures and hillsides; often in cedars; breast unstreaked; song musical... Field Sparrow.
5.59 in. In bushes or small trees; unstreaked; tail nervously twitched to the side... ♂ Indigo-bird.
5.52 in. In pines; upper parts brownish; under parts dull whitish ; wingbars dull white... ♀ Pine Warbler.
5.38 in. (Not common north of latitude of Boston.) In dry, sterile fields; song insect-like; breast unstreaked... Grasshopper Sparrow.
5.37 in. Near houses or farming land, or in cedars; breast ashy white, unstreaked ; song unmusical... Chipping Sparrow
5.20 in. In marshes; clings to stalks with tail cocked; song bubbling... Long-billed Marsh Wren.
5.00 in. In wet meadows, or ill-drained hillsides ; breast narrowly streaked; note flee'-sic; rare... Henslow's Sparrow.
5.00 in. In orchards, or about buildings; tail often cocked over back... House Wren.
4.00 in. In wet meadows; clings to stalks with tail cocked... Short-billed Marsh Wren.

B'.

6.00 in. (Not found north of Rhode Island.) In salt marshes... Seaside Sparrow.
5.50 in. (Rare in southern Connecticut, not uncommon in the lower Hudson Valley.) Skulks in bushes; whistles loudly; conspicuous whitish line over eye... Carolina Wren.

B".

6.27 in. On ground, or in trees; brownish-gray; outer tail-feathers white...♀ Junco.
5.66 in. Clinging close to trunks of trees... Brown Creeper.
5.35 in. (Only on mountains above 3000 ft. except in northern Maine.) In trees, chiefly spruces ; crown brownish-gray... Hudsonian Chickadee.
4.06 in. Dark brown; generally on ground; in damp forests.... Winter Wren.

Gray or Grayish.
A

10.00 in. Breast reddish; in trees, or on ground... Robin. 10.00. Lengthwise on limbs, or on exposed rocks; bar across wing white; wings very long... Nighthawk.
8.94 in. Dark slaty-gray; top of head black; in bushes, or feeding on ground... Catbird.
6.99 in. About farm-buildings, or near water; flies out from perch for insects; tail constantly jerked... Phæbe.
6.53 in. In groves, or street trees; flies out from perch for insects; wing-bars white... Wood Pewee.

A"

12.00 in. In woods, often about camps ; forehead white; nape black... Canada Jay.
12.00 in. Entire plumage sooty slate... Im. Canada Jay.
9.08 in. Slaty-gray; wing-bars white... ♀ Pine Grosbeak.
9.00 in. On tops of trees or bushes; wings and tail black and white... Loggerhead Shrike.
7:39 in. On dead trees in clearings or burnt tracts; flies out from perch after insects; note a wild whistle... Olive-sided Flycatcher.
[6.33 in. Size of English Sparrow.]

B

6.23 in. In trees; breast white, unstreaked... Red-eyed Vireo.
6.22 in. In trees, or occasionally on ground; brownish-gray; streaked all over ; line over eye white... ♀ Purple Finch.
5.80 in. In trees, common in village streets; breast unstreaked... Warbling Vireo.
5.61 in. (Rare south of latitude 43.) In cool woods; head dark; breast unstreaked ; line to and around eye white... Solitary Vireo
5:41 in. In trees in open country; note an emphatic tse-bic' ; sits upright on perch or flies out after insects... Least Flycatcher.
5.28 in. (Rare south of latitude 43, except in western New England.) Low in woods; spot on wing white... ♀ Black-throated Blue Warbler.
5.27 in. (Rare north of Connecticut.) In thickets; under parts yellowish; note loud and emphatic... White-eyed Vireo.

B'.

6.28 in. Near water; under parts streaked with black; tail constantly wagged... Louisiana Water-thrush.
6.00 in. (As far north as Orange, N. J., and Staten Island.) In trees; upper parts gray; crest conspicuous... Tufted Titmouse.
5.75 in. (As far north as Sing Sing, N. Y.; absent in New England.) Sits upright on a perch, or flies out for insects... Green-crested Flycatcher.
5.51 in. Back greenish-gray; head striped with black and buff... Worm-eating Warbler.

B"

6.27 in. Head and upper breast slaty-gray; outer tail-feathers white.... Junco.
6.19 in. In trees, generally conifers, often with red males; rump greenishyellow... ♀ American Crossbill.
6.09 in. In alder thickets ; sits upright on a perch; note quee-quee'. ... Alder Flycatcher.
6.05 in. In trees, generally conifers, at high altitudes; wing-bars white; rump greenish-yellow... White-winged Crossbill.
6.04 in. On ground near water; tail constantly wagged; breast streaked with black... Water-thrush.
5.63 in. Entire under parts yellowish; in spruces; note pee-a... Yellow-bellied Flycatcher.
5.56 in. Active in trees, generally conifers; sides streaked with black... ♀ Black-poll Warbler.
5.28 in. In trees or underbrush ; under parts unstreaked; small spot on wing white... ♀ Black-throated Blue Warbler.
4.07 in. Active in trees, generally conifers ; top of head yellow or orange, inclosed in black; note tsee-tsee-tsee, thin and high.... Golden-crowned Kinglet.

Yellow or Orange without Black.
A.

10.75 in. Breast yellow with black crescent; back brown; in grassland... Meadowlark.
[10.00 in. Size of Robin.]
9.01 in. Belly yellow; throat and breast ashy; tail reddish-brown... Crested Flycatcher.
7:53 in. In trees; under parts and middle of back dull orange; wing-bars white... ♀ Baltimore Oriole.
7:32 in. (Rare north of Connecticut.) Under parts dull yellow; upper parts grayish-brown... ♀ Orchard Oriole.
7.25 in. In trees; under parts greenish-yellow; upper parts olive-green... ♀ Tanager.
[6.33 in. Size of English Sparrow.]

Yellow or Orange without Black.
B.

6.17 in. In woodland; crown dull orange; breast spotted... Oven-bird.
5.95 in. Throat and breast bright yellow; in all but evergreen trees; not restless; song loud and rich; wing-bars white... Yellow-throated Vireo.
5.52 in. Generally in pines; yellow brightest on throat; wing-bars dull white; song rippling... Pine Warbler.
5.41 in. Restless in trees and thickets; sides of breast, wing, and band across tail yellow... ♀ Redstart.
5.33 in. In bushes in wet places; yellow brightest on throat; back brownish... ♀ Northern Yellow-throat.
5.27 in. (Rare north of Connecticut.) Sides washed with yellowish; eye-ring and line to forehead yellow; notes loud and emphatic... White-eyed Vireo.
5.25 in. (Rare south of latitude 43.) In evergreens; throat dull orange; wingbar white... ♀ Blackburnian Warbler.
5.14 in. In open woodland, and roadside thickets; top of head yellow; underparts white; cheeks white; narrow stripe along flanks reddishbrown... Chestnut-sided Warbler.
5.10 in. Often with bright yellow and black males; throat yellowish ; back brownish ; wings and tail black and white... ♀ Goldfinch.
5.10 in. Yellow all over, brighter below; back greenish-yellow... Yellow Warbler.
4.77 in. Under parts bright yellow; head ashy; very restless in scrubby growth... Nash Warbler.

B".

5.65 in. In trees, generally conifers; rump yellow; back brownish... ♀ Myrtle Warbler.
5.61 in. Low in woodland; under parts yellow... ♀ Canadian Warbler.
5.25 in. In trees, generally conifers; throat dull yellow; back black, streaked with white; wing-patch white... ♀ Blackburnian Warbler.
5.00 in. Wing-bar yellow; under parts streaked... Pine Siskin.

Yellow, Orange or Chestnut, with Black.
A.

8.35 in. Scratching under bushes, or flying through them, or singing from bush or low tree; head black; tail black, tipped with white; sides bay... Towhee.
7:53 in. In trees ; head black; breast and belly reddish-orange; wings black, with white wing-bars; tail black and yellow... Baltimore Oriole.
7.32 in. (Rare north of Connecticut.) In trees; head black; breast and belly chestnut; no yellow in tail... Orchard Oriole.
[6.33 in. Size of English Sparrow.)

B.

5.41 in. Restless in trees or thickets ; ead black ; orange or yellow on sides of breast, wing, and tail... Redstart.
5.33 in. Low in thickets, generally in wet places; throat and breast yellow; broad band through eye black... Maryland Yellow-throat.
5.10 in. In trees, especially evergreens: throat and sides of breast black; cheeks yellow; song wheezy; common... Black-throated Green Warbler.
5.10 in. In scrubby pastures, or edges of woodland; throat black; top of head and band on wing yellow; rare.... Golden-winged Warbler.
5.10 in. On the ground, in trees, or flying; back and under parts bright yellow; forehead black; wings and tail black and white... Goldfinch.
4.75 in. In second growth; under parts bright yellow; sides streaked with black... Prairie Warbler.

B'.

5.67 in. In wet woods and in laurel; back of head and throat black ; forehead and cheeks yellow... Hooded Warbler.
5.40 in. In wet woods ; line over eye yellow; sides of throat black... Kentucky Warbler.
4.80 in. Top of head and under parts yellow ; line through eye black ; wing-bars white or yellowish-white... Blue-winged Warbler.

B"

5.65 in. In trees; rump, crown-patch and patches on sides of breast yellow; patches on sides of upper belly black... Myrtle Warbler.
5.63 in. In thickets, chiefly near the ground; head and throat bluish-gray; breast black; belly yellow... Mourning Warbler.
5.63 in. In trees, generally conifers; forehead and cheeks black; crown chestnut; throat, upper breast, and sides bay... Bay-breasted Warbler.
5.61 in. In wet thickets or mountain-sides; under parts yellow; necklace of spots across breast black... Canadian Warbler.
5.25 in. In trees, generally evergreens; throat orange; head and back black, streaked with whitish... Blackburnian Warbler.
5.12 in. In trees, generally conifers; under parts bright yellow, streaked with black; head bluish-ash; back and wings black and white; rump yellow... Magnolia Warbler.
5.00 in. In trees; under parts yellow, streaked with black; crown black... Cape May Warbler.

Black and White.
A.

[10.00 in. Size of Robin.]
9.40 in. On trunks or large limbs; under parts and broad stripe down back white; wings barred, black and white;♂ with red patch on head; rare except near deep woods... Hairy Woodpecker.
8.51 in. Flying from exposed perch; under parts white; head black; tail black, tipped with white... Kingbird.
8.35 in. Scratching in thickets, or singing from bush or low tree; head black; sides chestnut; tail-feathers tipped with white... Towhee.
8.12 in. In trees, or in potato-fields; head and back black; wings and tail black and white; breast white with a spot of rose in centre... Rose-breasted Grosbeak.
7.25 in. In or near grassy fields; under parts black; upper parts chiefly white Bobolink.
6.83 in. On trunks or large limbs; under parts and broad stripe down back white; wings barred, black and white; ♂ with red patch on head... Downy Woodpecker.

A".

12.00 in. In woods, often about logging-camps, forehead white; nape black... Canada Jay.
9.00 in. On tops of trees or bushes; wings and tail black and white... Loggerhead Shrike.
8.75 in. On trunks and large limbs; back barred with black and white... American Three-toed Woodpecker.
8.56 in. On trunks and large limbs; back speckled with black and white; white stripe along edge of wing... Sapsucker.
[6.33 in. Size of English Sparrow.]

B.

6.07 in. On limbs or trunks; crown black; under parts white; back bluishgray... White-bellied Nuthatch.
5.30 in. On trunks and large limbs of trees; head black, with white line through centre; back streaked black and white... Black and White Warbler.
5.28 in. (Only from northern and western Massachusetts northward.) In woods; throat black; upper parts dark bluish; spot on wing white... Black-throated Blue Warbler.
5.27 in. In trees; top of head and throat black; cheeks white; wings gray... Chickadee.

B".

5.56 in. Active in trees, generally conifers, chiefly at high altitudes; crown plain black; back and breast streaked... Black-poll Warbler.
5.28 in. In trees or underbrush; throat and sides black; upper parts darkbluish; spot on wing white... Black-throated Blue Warbler.
4.62 in. On trunks and limbs; top of head and line through eye black; back bluish; under parts reddish brown or buffy... Red-bellied Nuthatch.

Black.
A.

19.30 in. Entire plumage black... Crow.
13.50-12.00 in. In pines, or walking on ground; tail long; head lustrous blue-black... Crow Blackbird.
[10.00 in. Size of Robin.]
9.51 in. Near water; red on shoulders, or white bar on upper wing... Red-winged Blackbird.
7.92 in. Walking on ground, or lighting in trees; head deep brown... Cowbird.

A'

8.50 in. Only near New York city, or Long Island Sound; purplish or greenish at close range; feathers of upper parts tipped with buff; bill yellow... Starling.

A"

17.00 in. In woods; head with long red crest... Pileated Woodpecker.
9.50 in. On trunks or large limbs; back plain black; wings and tail black and white... Arctic Three-toed Woodpecker.

Red, Scarlet, or Rose.
A.

8.12 in. In trees; spot of rose-red on white breast; head and throat black; wings and tail black and white... Rose-breasted Grosbeak.
7.25 in. In trees; whole body red; wings and tail black... Scarlet Tanager.

A'.

8.25 in. (As far north as Central Park, N. Y.) Entire plumage red or reddish ; crest conspicuous... Cardinal.

A"

9.08 in. Entire plumage rose-red; wing-bars white... Pine Grosbeak.
8.56 in. On trunks or large limbs; back speckled with white; whole top of head, and in male throat also, dark red... Sapsucker.
[6.33 in. Size of English Sparrow.]

B.

6.22 in. Entire upper parts and throat dull crimson; brightest on head and rump; bill stout... Purple Finch.
5.25 in. (Rare south of latitude 43.) In trees, chiefly evergreens; throat rich orange; back black, streaked with white... Blackburnian Warbler.

B".

6.19 in. Entire plumage vermilion-red, brightest on head and rump... American Crossbill.
6.05 in. Entire bird rose-red; wing-bars white... White-winged Crossbill.
5.63 in. In trees, generally evergreen ; crown, throat, upper breast, and sides bay; wing-bars white... Bay-breasted Warbler.
5.25 in. In trees, generally evergreen; throat rich orange; back black, streaked with whitish; patch on wing white... Blackburnian Warbler.
4.62 in. On limbs or trunks of trees; top of head and line through eye black; back bluish; under parts reddish-brown... Red-bellied Nuthatch.

Blue.
A.

13.02 in. Perched near water, or flying over it; much white and no black showing on wings, tail, and throat; bill long and pointed; head crested... Kingfisher.
11.74 in. In trees; much white showing in wings and tail, and black on head and breast; bill not long; head crested... Blue Jay.
[10.00 in. Size of Robin.]
7.01 in. Upper parts deep blue ; breast reddish... Bluebird.
7.01 in. Upper parts grayish; breast pale reddish; wings and tail bluish... ♀ Bluebird.
[6.33 in. Size of English Sparrow.]

B.

6.07 in. On limbs and trunks of trees; back bluish-gray; top of head black; under parts white... White-bellied Nuthatch.
5.59 in. Deep blue all over ; sings from a high perch... Indigo-bird.


BIRDS CONSTANTLY ON THE WING (SWALLOWS,SWIFT, ETC.)

A.

10.00 in. Wings long and narrow, a white bar on the under side; birds generally high in air... Nighthawk.
8.00 in. Wings rather broad; birds very dark, or females light below... Purple Martin.
[6.33 in. Size of English Sparrow.]

B

6.95 in. (Longer but not larger than an English Sparrow.) Glossy blue above; salmon or wbitish underneath; two outer tail-feathers long and pointed... Barn Swallow.
6.01 in. Back bluish; throat chestnut; belly whitish; rump brick red; tail almost square... Cliff or Eave Swallow.
5.90 in. Iridescent greenish-blue above ; pure white beneath; tail simply forked... White-bellied Swallow.
5.43 in. Sooty brown, often apparently black; wings narrow and curved; flight bat-like; tail either cigar-shaped, or, when quickly spread, fan-shaped... Chimney Swift.
5.20 in. Upper parts brown; under parts whitish; band across breast brownish; tail notched... Bank Swallow.

B'.

5.75 in. Upper parts brown ; throat and breast dusky; no distinct band across breast... Rough-winged Swallow.


KEY FOR AUTUMN
(SEPTEMBER 15-NOVEMBER 15)

Brown or Brownish.
A.

12.20 in. In trees ; very slender; tail long; under parts white... Yellow-billed Cuckoo.
12.20 in. In trees ; very slender; tail long; under parts white... Black-billed Cuckoo.
12.00 in. Flies from or to trees; rump white... Flicker.
11.42 in. Reddish-brown; flies into bushes when disturbed; tail long... Brown Thrasher.
10.75 in. Flies up from the grass; outer tail-feathers white... Meadowlark.
[10.00 in. Size of Robin.]
9.55 in. In flocks; upper parts rusty-brown... Rusty Blackbird.
8.35 in. Scratches under bushes; outer tail-feathers deeply tipped with white... ♀ Towhee.
8.12 in. In trees; line over eye and bar on wing white... Rose-breasted Grosbeak.
7.75 in. On or near the beach; throat yellow... Shore Lark.
7.26 in. (After October 15.) Fox color; scratches on ground; breast spotted... Fox Sparrow.
7.19 in. In flocks in trees; plump, sleek; eats fruit...Cedar-bird.
7.17 in. On ground, or low limbs; tail reddish-brown... Hermit Thrush.
7.17 in. On ground, or low limbs; head, back, and tail uniform olive-brown; cheek buffy ; eye-ring white... Olive-backed Thrush.
6.25-7-58 in. On ground, or low limbs; head, back, and tail uniform olivebrown; cheek gray; no eye-ring... Gray-cheeked Thrush.
6.99 in. On trees near water; tail constantly jerked... Phæbe.
6.74 in. Feeds on ground, generally in flocks; head marked with black and white; line over eye yellow or yellowish; throat white or whitish... White-throated Sparrow.
6.38 in. In flocks on the ground in ploughed fields and on mud-flats and marshes; tail constantly wagged; outer tail-feathers white... American Pipit.
[6.33 in. Size of English Sparrow.]

B.

6.36 in. (After October 20.) In flocks on the ground, or in low bushes; wing-bars white; spot on unstreaked breast dusky.... Tree Sparrow.
6.30 in. In weedy fields, or at the edges of grassy marshes; breast streaked with dark blotch in centre... Song Sparrow,
6.27 in. Brownish-gray, unstreaked; outer tail-feathers white; generally in flocks with slate-gray males... ♀Junco.
6.25 in. Only in or near beach grass... Ipswich Sparrow.
6.17 in. On the ground in woods; breast streaked... Oven-bird.
6.12 in. In grassy pasture-land, or in old fields; outer tail-feathers white... Vesper Sparrow.
6.12 in. In grassy marshes, or borders of old fields; breast streaked; line through forehead white... Savanna Sparrow.
5.90 in. A swallow with brown back and white under parts; common along the sea-shore... Im. White-bellied Swallow.
5.89 in. In grassy marshes, or weedy edges of old fields; breast unstreaked; wing reddish-brown... Swamp Sparrow
5.68 in. In bushes, near old fields; breast unstreaked; wing-bars white; bill reddish... Field Sparrow.
5.66 in. On trunks or large limbs of trees... Brown Creeper.
5.65 in. In trees, or on the sea-shore in bayberry bushes; rump yellow; tips of outer tail-feathers white... Myrtle Warbler.
5.59 in. In weedy corners; no reddish-brown anywhere; tail twitched sideways... Indigo-bird.
5.37 in. Feeding on ground, in old fields or weedy corners; breast unstreaked; wing-bars dull white; bill black, or dull reddishbrown... Chipping Sparrow.
5.10 in. Upper parts brownish; throat tinged with yellow; wings and tail dusky, with whitish markings... ♀Goldfinch.
5.00 in. In brush heaps, or stone-walls; tail often cocked over back... House Wren
4.06 in. In brush heaps, stone walls, or along woodland streams; call a sharp chick ; curtsies nervously... Winter Wren.

B'.

5.50 in. (Very rare in New England.) Skulks in bushes ; conspicuous whitish line over eye... Carolina Wren.

B".

5.35 in. In flocks in trees; crown dark brownish-gray... Hudsonian Chickadee.

Gray or Grayish.
A.

[10.00 in. Size of Robin.]
8.94 in. In thickets; uniform slaty-gray with a black cap... Catbird.
6.99 in. On trees near water, or flying out after insects; tail constantly twitched. Much commoner than the next... Phoebe.
6.53 in. (Only till October.) Perched in trees, or flying out after insects; wing-bars white... Wood Pewee.

A".

12.00 in. In woods; crown white; nape black... Canada Jay.
9.08 in. Slaty-gray; wing-bars white... ♀ Pine Grosbeak.
[6.33 in. Size of English Sparrow.]

B.

6.23 in. In trees, often with smaller birds; breast gray, unstreaked; line over eye white, bordered above with black... Red-eyed Vireo.
6.22 in. In trees, often with red males; breast streaked... ♀Purple Finch.
6.19 in.* In trees, generally conifers, often with red males; rump greenishyellow... ♀ American Crossbill.
6.04 in. (Only till October 1.) Walking on ground under trees or bushes at the edge of water; tail constantly wagged... Water-thrush.
5.80 in. (Rare after September 23.) In trees, often with smaller birds; breast gray, unstreaked... Warbling Vireo.
5.61 in. In trees; breast unstreaked; head dark; ring around eye and line to bill white... Solitary Vireo.
5.56 in. Restless in trees; under parts yellowish; faintly streaked... Black-poll Warbler.
5.27 in. (Rare north of Connecticut.) In thickets; breast unstreaked; sides yellowish... White-eyed Vireo.
5.27 in. In trees in small flocks; cap and throat black... Chickadee.
5.00 in. In flocks in trees; uniformly streaked; bar on wing yellowish... Pine Siskin.
4.41 in. In trees or thickets; restless; eye prominent... Ruby-crowned Kinglet.
4.07 in. In trees; restless; wing-bars white; crown yellow, bordered with black... Golden-crowned Kinglet.

B'.

6.00. (North as far as Orange, N. J., and Staten Island.) In trees; upper parts gray; crest conspicuous... Tufted Titmouse.

B”.

6.19 in. In trees, generally in conifers, often with red males; rump greenishyellow... ♀ American Crossbill.
6.05 in. In trees, generally in conifers, often with red males; wing-bars white; rump greenish-yellow... White-winged Crossbill.

Yellow without Black.
A.

7.25 in. In trees; back greenish; under parts yellowish; wings brown or black; bill light-colored... Scarlet Tanager.
[6.33 in. Size of English Sparrow.]

B.

5.95 in. (Rare after September 23.) In trees; throat yellow; wing-bars white... Yellow-throated Vireo.
5.65 in. In trees, or at the sea-shore in bayberry bushes; rump yellow; tips of outer tail feathers white... Myrtle Warbler.
5.61 in. Low in trees or bushes; under parts yellow; upper parts gray... ♀ Canadian Warbler.
5.56 in. (Very common fill October 15.) Restless in trees, under parts yellowish with faint streakings... Black-poll Warbler.
5.52 in. In trees, generally in pines; throat yellow; wing-bars dull whitish... Pine Warbler.
5.43 in. In low trees or bushes; under parts yellow; tail constantly wagged... Yellow Palm Warbler.
5.41 in. (Rare after October 5.) In trees; sides of breast, bar across wing, and band across tail yellow... ♀ Redstart.
5.33 in. Low in bushes in wet places; throat yellow... ♀ Maryland Yellow-throat.
5.14 in. (Rare after September 25.) In trees or thickets; top of head yellow;under parts white... Chestnut-sided Warbler.
5.12 in. (Rare after October 10.) In trees; under parts and ruinp yellow;tail black, the middle third white... Magnolia Warbler.
5.10 in. In trees, cheeks yellow; wing-bars white... Black-throated Green Warbler.
5.10 in. In flocks; throat yellowish ; wings and tail dusky and white... ♀ Goldfinch.
4.77 in. Restless in trees or bushes; under parts yellow; upper parts brownish (tinged with green in strong light) ... Nashville Warbler.
4.73 in. In trees; throat and breast yellow; upper parts grayish-blue; wingbars white... Parula Warbler.

Yellow, Orange, or Chestnut, with Black.
A.

[10.00 in. Size of Robin.]
8.35 in. Scratching on the ground under bushes; head black; sides chestnut; tail black, outer feathers tipped with white... Towhee.
[6.33 in. Size of English Sparrow.]
5.60 in. Low in trees or bushes; under parts yellow; necklace of black spots across the breast... Canadian Warbler.
5.41 in. In trees; head black; sides of breast orange; bar across wings and tail salmon... Redstart.
5.33 in. Low in bushes in wet places; throat yellow; band across eyes black... Maryland Yellow-throat.
5.10 in. In trees; cheeks yellow; throat and sides of breast black... Black-throated Green Warbler.
5.10 in. In flocks; body yellow; cap black; wings and tail black and white... Goldfinch.

Black and White.
A.

10.32 in. (Only after October 25.) On trees ; upper parts gray; wings and tail black... Northern Shrike.
(10.00 in. Size of Robin.)
9.40 in. On trunks or large limbs; stripe down middle of back white; wings and tail barred with black and white... Hairy Woodpecker.
8.56 in. On trunks or large limbs; back speckled with white; white stripe along edge of wings... Sapsucker.
8.35 in. Scratching on the ground under bushes; head black; tail black,outer feathers tipped with large white spots ... Towhee.
6.88 in. In flocks, generally near the sea; wings and tail black and white; body chiefly white... Snow Bunting.
6.83 in. On trunks or large limbs; stripe down middle of back white; wings and tail barred with black and white... Downy Woodpecker.

A".

12.00 in. In woods; crown white; nape black... Canada Jay.
8.75 in. On trunks and large limbs; back barred with black and white... American Three-toed Woodpecker.
[6.33 in. Size of English Sparrow.]

B.

6.07 in. Climbing about on the large limbs or trunks of trees; top of head black; back bluish-gray... White-bellied Nuthatch.
5.30 in. (Rare after October 1.) Climbing about the trunks or large limbs of trees; streaked black and white... Black and White Warbler.
5.28 in. (Rare after October 10.) In trees; head and throat black; under parts white; white spot on wing... Black-throated Blue Warbler.
5.27 in. In small flocks in trees; cap and throat black; cheeks and breast white... Chickadee.

Black.
A

12-13.50 in. In flocks; tail long... Crow Blackbird.
[10.00 in. Size of Robin.]
9.55 in. In flocks near water... Rusty Blackbird.
9.51 in. In flocks, with red or white at the bend of the wing... Red-winged Blackbird.
7.92 in. In flocks; head brown; body black... Cowbird.

A'.

8.50 in. (Only near New York city or Long Island Sound.) Walks on ground; purplish or greenish at close range; feathers of upper part tipped with buff... Starling.

A".

17.00 in. Entire plumage black, except a red crest and a white bar on wing... Pileated Woodpecker.
9.50 in. On trunks or large limbs; back black; wings and tail black and white... Arctic Three-toed Woodpecker.

Red, Scarlet, or Rose.
A.

[10.00 in. Size of Robin.]
9.40 in. On trunks or large limbs; stripe down middle of back white; wings and tail barred with black and white; red patch on back of head... Hairy Woodpecker.
8.56 in. On trunks or large limbs; back speckled with white; white stripe along edge of wing; top of head, or top of head and throat, red... Sapsucker.
6.83 in. On trunks or large limbs; stripe down middle of back white; wings and tail barred with black and white; red patch on back of head... Downy Woodpecker.

A'

8.25 in. (As far north as Central Park, N. Y.) In trees or thickets; entire plumage red or reddish; crest conspicuous... Cardinal

A"

9.08 in. Entire plumage rose-red; wing-bars white... Pine Grosbeak.
8.56 in. On trunks or large limbs ; back speckled with white; whole top of head, and in male throat also, dark red... Sapsucker.

B

[6.33 in. Size of English Sparrow.]
6.22 in. In flocks in trees; rose-red, brightest on head and rump... Purple Finch.
6.19 in.* In flocks in trees, chiefly conifers; vermilion-red, brightest on head... Red Crossbill.
4.62 in. Climbing on trunks and large limbs of trees; under parts reddishbrown; back bluish... Red-bellied Nuthatch.

B".

6.19 in. Entire plumage vermilion-red, brightest on head and rump... American Crossbill.
6.05 in. Entire bird rose-red; wing-bars white... White-winged Crossbill.

Blue.
A.

13.02 in. Flying over water, or perched near it; bill long and pointed; much white showing, but no black; head crested... Kingfisher.
11.74 in. In trees; bill not long; much white, and some black about the head and breast; head crested... Blue Jay.
[10.00 in. Size of Robin.]
7.01 in. In open country; upper parts blue; breast reddish... ♂Bluebird.
7.01 in. Upper parts grayish; breast reddish; wing and tail bluish... ♀ Bluebird.
[6.33 in. Size of English Sparrow.]
6.07 in. On trunks or large limbs of trees; top of bead black; back bluishgray... White-bellied Nuthatch.
5.90 in. Near water, especially near the sea; flying about, or perched, often in great flocks; upper parts greenish-blue ; under parts white... White-bellied Swallow.
5.28 in. In trees; head and throat black; back and wings grayish-blue; spot on wing white... Black-throated Blue Warbler.
4.73 in. In trees; upper parts grayish-blue; throat and breast yellow; wingbars white... Parula Warbler.
4.62 in. On trunks or large limbs; back bluish; top of head and line through eye black; under parts reddish-brown or buffy... Red-bellied Nuthatch.

Previous Page - Table of Contents - Next Page